Corrections? Marie-Therese of Austria, queen consort of King Louis XIV of France. She controlled the selection of archbishops, bishops and abbots. , In 1776, Austria outlawed torture, particularly at the behest of Joseph II. Contemporaries thought her Latin to be quite good, but in all else, the Jesuits did not educate her well.  She centralised and modernised the institutions, and her reign was considered as the beginning of the era of "enlightened absolutism" in Austria, with a brand new approach towards governing: the measures undertaken by rulers became more modern and rational, and thoughts were given to the welfare of the state and the people. It is hardly credible how many books and productions of every species, and in every language, are proscribed by her. In 1775, for the first time ever the Habsburg Monarchy achieved its first balanced budget, and by 1780, the Habsburg state revenue had reached 50 million gulden. The day after the entrance of Prussia into Silesia, Francis Stephen exclaimed to the Prussian envoy, She explained her resolution to the Count furthermore: "I shall have all my armies, all my Hungarians killed off before I cede so much as an inch of ground.". This criminal code allowed the possibility of establishing the truth through torture, and it also criminalised witchcraft and various religious offenses. Kann asserts that she nevertheless possessed qualities appreciated in a monarch: warm heart, practical mind, firm determination and sound perception.  Overall, although the idea had merit, the reforms were not as successful as they were expected to be; in some parts of Austria, half of the population was illiterate well into the 19th century. As the daughter of King Philip IV of Spain and Elizabeth of France, Marie-Therese was betrothed to Louis by the Peace of the Pyrenees (1659), which ended a 24-year war between France and Spain. , Maria Theresa fell ill on 24 November 1780. The couple was married in June 1660. She was buried at the Royal Basilica of Saint Denis outside Paris on 3 September 1683. Accordingly, he conquered part of the Spanish Netherlands in his wife’s name (War of Devolution, 1667–68). Meanwhile, Joseph was hoping for a more radical change, and he himself abolished forced peasant labour during his reign in 1789, although this was later retracted by Emperor Leopold II.  The Directory was transformed into the United Austrian and Bohemian Chancellery in 1761 that was equipped with a separate, independent judiciary and separate financial bodies.  Therefore, she needed troops from Hungary in order to support the war effort. , Contrary to all expectations, the young Queen gained significant support from Hungary. Her education was overseen by Jesuits. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Meet extraordinary women who dared to bring gender equality and other issues to the forefront. Ten years later, Maria Theresa recalled in her Political Testament the circumstances under which she had ascended: "I found myself without money, without credit, without army, without experience and knowledge of my own and finally, also without any counsel because each one of them at first wanted to wait and see how things would develop. [b] Maria Theresa developed a close relationship with Countess Marie Karoline von Fuchs-Mollard, who taught her etiquette. , In light of the failure to reclaim Silesia during the Seven Years' War, the governing system was once again reformed to strengthen the state. Vienna was in a panic, as none of Maria Theresa's advisors expected France to betray them.  All children of both genders from the ages of six to twelve were required to attend school. Maria Theresa decided to fight for the mineral-rich province. The oath of fealty to Maria Theresa was taken on the same day in the Ritterstube of the Hofburg. , Maria Theresa was not just critical of Marie Antoinette. Frederick II of Prussia (who became Maria Theresa's greatest rival for most of her reign) promptly invaded and took the affluent Habsburg province of Silesia in the seven-year conflict known as the War of the Austrian Succession. During her lifetime in Spain, she was painted by the renowned painter, Diego Velázquez. , Maria Theresa endeavoured to increase the living standards of the people, since she could see a causal link between peasant living standards, productivity and state revenue. À la cour d'Espagne, Marie-Thérèse était une jeune fille un peu charmante, timide, petite, gourmande, ressemblant à sa mère bien-aimée.  Louis XV of France demanded that Maria Theresa's fiancé surrender his ancestral Duchy of Lorraine to accommodate his father-in-law, Stanisław I, who had been deposed as King of Poland. Five children were born during the peace between the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War: Maria Johanna, Maria Josepha, Maria Carolina, Ferdinand and Maria Antonia. Their eldest son, Joseph, became Holy Roman Emperor. Leopold Clement of Lorraine was first considered to be the appropriate suitor, and he was supposed to visit Vienna and meet the Archduchess in 1723. Maria Theresa, then in Hungary, wept on learning of the loss of Bohemia. Maria Theresa kept up a fortnightly correspondence with Maria Antonia, now called Marie Antoinette, in which she often reproached her for laziness and frivolity and scolded her for failing to conceive a child. The second and eldest surviving child of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Archduchess Maria Theresa was born on 13 May 1717 in Vienna, a year after the death of her elder brother, Archduke Leopold, and was baptised on that same evening. While fighting to preserve her inheritance, Maria Theresa gave birth to a son named after Saint Joseph, to whom she had repeatedly prayed for a male child during the pregnancy. If someone unknown tried to purchase a poison, that person had to provide two character witnesses before a sale could be effectuated. As the daughter of King Philip IV of Spain and Elizabeth of France, Marie-Thérèse was betrothed to Louis by the Peace of the Pyrenees (1659), which ended a 24-year war between France and Spain. Subsequently, Maria Theresa sent Georg Adam, Prince of Starhemberg to negotiate an agreement with France, and the result was the First Treaty of Versailles of 1 May 1756.  France, Spain, Saxony, Bavaria and Prussia later reneged. In 1777, she wrote of the Jews: "I know of no greater plague than this race, which on account of its deceit, usury and avarice is driving my subjects into beggary. Francis Stephen urged Maria Theresa to reach a rapprochement with Prussia, as did Great Britain. Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (German: Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.  In 1769, the Constitutio Criminalis Theresiana was published, and this was a codification of the traditional criminal justice system since the Middle Ages.  There were also parts of the realm where the Jews were treated better, such as Trieste, Gorizia and Vorarlberg. The imperial family staged opera productions, often conducted by Charles VI, in which she relished participating. The Battle of Kolin that followed was a decisive victory for Austria. " The censorship particularly affected works that were deemed to be against the Catholic religion. Francis Stephen was inclined to consider such an arrangement, but the Queen and her advisers were not, fearing that any violation of the Pragmatic Sanction would invalidate the entire document. "[f] On 26 October, the Elector of Bavaria captured Prague and declared himself King of Bohemia. The invasion of Silesia by Frederick was the start of a lifelong enmity; she referred to him as "that evil man". In return, Austria would cede several towns in the Austrian Netherlands to the son-in-law of Louis XV, Philip of Parma, who in turn would grant his Italian duchies to Maria Theresa. Her title after the death of her husband was: Maria Theresa, by the Grace of God, Dowager Empress of the Romans, Queen of Hungary, of Bohemia, of Dalmatia, of Croatia, of Slavonia, of Galicia, of Lodomeria, etc.  Overall, the ecclesiastical policies of Maria Theresa were enacted to ensure the primacy of State control in Church-State relations. , In 1741, the Austrian authorities informed Maria Theresa that the Bohemian populace would prefer Charles Albert, Elector of Bavaria to her as sovereign. Maria Theresa's Rescript of 1779 was kept in force until 1868. Queen Elisabeth of Spain and Elector Charles Albert of Bavaria, married to Maria Theresa's deprived cousin Maria Amalia and supported by Empress Wilhelmine Amalia, coveted portions of her inheritance.  Unlike many other members of the House of Habsburg, neither Maria Theresa's parents nor her grandparents were closely related to each other. Her reforms had transformed the empire into a modern state with a significant international standing.  Maria Theresa herself might have wanted the schools to teach Catholic orthodoxy, but the curriculum focused on social responsibility, social discipline, work ethic and the use of reason rather than mere rote learning. She detests Your Majesty, but acknowledges your ability. Moreover, upon his death, Saxony, Prussia, Bavaria, and France all repudiated the sanction they had recognised during his lifetime. During the last week of July 1683, Marie Thérèse fell ill. She died a painful death on 30 July 1683 at Versailles in the arms of Madame de Maintenon. However, she despised the Jews and the Protestants, and on certain occasions she ordered their expulsion to remote parts of the realm. " The duo argued that it was too late to abort now.  The Habsburg government under her rule also tried to strengthen its industry through government interventions. She suffered from shortness of breath, fatigue, cough, distress, necrophobia and insomnia. None. Maria Theresa blamed herself for her daughter's death for the rest of her life because, at the time, the concept of an extended incubation period was largely unknown and it was believed that Maria Josepha had caught smallpox from the body of the late empress. The goal was to ensure that peasants not only could support themselves and their family members, but also help cover the national expenditure in peace or war.  This alarmed Frederick II of Prussia, and thus the War of Bavarian Succession erupted in 1778. She was barred from horse riding by her father, but she would later learn the basics for the sake of her Hungarian coronation ceremony. Marie-Thérèse d’Autriche was born on September 10 in 1638, five days after her future husband, which made many believe they were meant for each other. María Teresa married Louis XIV of France by proxy on 3 June 1660 at Fuenterrabia. Maria Theresa later unsuccessfully tried to reconquer Silesia during the Seven Years' War. The first child, Maria Elisabeth (1737–1740), was born a little less than a year after the wedding. ", She dismissed the possibility that other countries might try to seize her territories and immediately started ensuring the imperial dignity for herself; since a woman could not be elected Holy Roman Empress, Maria Theresa wanted to secure the imperial office for her husband, but Francis Stephen did not possess enough land or rank within the Holy Roman Empire. , In December 1744, she proposed to her ministers the expulsion of Jews from Austria and Bohemia.  She also refounded the Hofkammer in 1762, which was a ministry of finances that controlled all revenues from the monarchy. Finally, the war was concluded by the Treaty of Hubertusburg and Paris in 1763. She was educated in drawing, painting, music and dancing – the disciplines which would have prepared her for the role of queen consort. À la cour de France, l'atmosphère est différente : elle se renferme … In defiance of the grave situation, she managed to secure the vital support of the Hungarians for the war effort. Maria Theresa promulgated institutional, financial and educational reforms, with the assistance of Wenzel Anton of Kaunitz-Rietberg, Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz and Gerard van Swieten.  The couple were married on 12 February 1736. Maria Theresa's ally, the Elector of Saxony, now became her enemy, and George II declared the Electorate of Hanover to be neutral. Her father Philip IV and the entire Spanish court accompanied the María Teresa to the Isle of Pheasants in Bidassoa, where Louis XIV and his court met her. " The response was rather boorish, with the queen being questioned and even heckled by members of the Diet; someone cried that she "better apply to Satan than the Hungarians for help.  In 1770, she enacted a strict regulation of the sale of poisons, and apothecaries were obliged to keep a poison register recording the quantity and circumstances of every sale. Maria Antonia's education was neglected, and when the French showed an interest in her, her mother went about educating her as best she could about the court of Versailles and the French. Maria Theresa herself inaugurated inoculation in Austria by hosting a dinner for the first sixty-five inoculated children in Schönbrunn Palace, waiting on the children herself. Prussia recognised Francis as emperor, and Maria Theresa once again recognised the loss of Silesia by the Treaty of Dresden in December 1745, ending the Second Silesian War.  Although Austria managed to gain the Innviertel area, this "Potato War" caused a setback to the financial improvement that the Habsburg had made. Since she required them in thousands or even tens of thousands, she decided to appear before the Hungarian Diet on 11 September 1741 while wearing the crown of St Stephen. ", Upon his accession to the imperial throne, Joseph ruled less land than his father had in 1740, since he had given up his rights over Tuscany to Leopold, and thus he only controlled Falkenstein and Teschen. Frederick lost one third of his troops, and before the battle was over, he had left the scene. [c] Francis Stephen was to receive the Grand Duchy of Tuscany upon the death of childless Grand Duke Gian Gastone de' Medici. Marie Thérèse of Austria (Spanish: María Teresa de Austria; French: Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche; 10 September 1638 – 30 July 1683), was by birth Infanta of Spain and Portugal (until 1640) and Archduchess of Austria as member of the Spanish branch of the House of Habsburg and by marriage Queen of France.. She was the only surviving daughter of Philip IV, King of Spain and Elisabeth of … One of the most important aspects of Jansenism was the advocation of maximum freedom of national churches from Rome. She is a direct ancestor of the present Spainish King Felipe VI. Guerrier, il aimait la chasse, la politique et les femmes. , Charles VI died on 20 October 1740, probably of mushroom poisoning.  Charles Albert was unanimously elected Holy Roman Emperor on 24 January 1742, which made him the only non-Habsburg to be in that position since 1440.  French troops fled Bohemia in the winter of the same year. Toleration, indifferentism, are exactly the right means to undermine everything... What other restraint exists?  The war was concluded the next year with the Treaty of Belgrade. Ironically, for this purpose, she was aided by Gerard van Swieten who was considered to be an "enlightened" man.  Maria Theresa survived, but the young empress did not. She decided to rely on her father's advice to retain his counselors and to defer to her husband, whom she considered to be more experienced, on other matters. Though she was expected to cede power to her husband, Emperor Francis I, and her eldest son, Emperor Joseph II, who were officially her co-rulers in Austria and Bohemia, Maria Theresa was the absolute sovereign who ruled with the counsel of her advisers. These plans were forestalled by his death from smallpox.  After Kaunitz became the head of the new Staatsrat, he pursued a policy of "aristocratic Enlightenment" that relied on persuasion to interact with the estates, and he was also willing to retract some of Haugwitz's centralization to curry favour with them. : Titre « Roi » de Hongrie et de Bohême, duchesse de Bourgogne, de Milan, de Brabant, de Limbourg et de Luxembourg et archiduchesse d'Autriche; 20 octobre 1740 – 29 novembre 1780 (40 ans, 1 mois et 9 jours) , From an institutional perspective, in 1749, she founded the Supreme Judiciary as a court of final appeal for all hereditary lands. In 1738, Charles VI sent the young couple to make their formal entry into Tuscany.  The Emperor, who spent his entire reign securing the Pragmatic Sanction, left Austria in an impoverished state, bankrupted by the recent Turkish war and the War of the Polish Succession; the treasury contained only 100,000 gulden, which were claimed by his widow.  It was clear that Maria Theresa would outrank them, even though their grandfather, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, had his sons sign the Mutual Pact of Succession, which gave precedence to the daughters of the elder brother. She disliked Leopold's reserve and often blamed him for being cold. Our latest podcast episode features popular TED speaker Mara Mintzer. Her first intention was to deport all Jews by 1 January, but having accepted the advice of her ministers, who were concerned by the number of future deportees that could reach 50,000, had the deadline postponed to June. She led the marriage negotiations along with the campaigns of her wars and the duties of state. Maria Theresa very unwillingly consented to the occupation of Bavaria, and a year later she made peace proposals to Frederick II despite Joseph's objections. , Austrian historian Karl Vocelka observed that the educational reforms enacted by Maria Theresa were "really founded on Enlightenment ideas," although the ulterior motive was still to "meet the needs of an absolutist state, as an increasingly sophisticated and complicated society and economy required new administrators, officers, diplomats and specialists in virtually every area.  However, he was appointed only because of his familial relations; he turned out to be an incompetent military leader, and he was later replaced by Leopold Joseph von Daun, Franz Moritz von Lacy and Ernst Gideon von Laudon. " After much contemplation, she chose not to abdicate.  Maria Theresa's firmness soon assured Francis Stephen that they should fight for Silesia,[e] and she was confident that she would retain "the jewel of the House of Austria".  Subsequently, Prussia was defeated at Hochkirch in Saxony on 14 October 1758, at Kunersdorf in Brandenburg on 12 August 1759, and at Landeshut near Glatz in June 1760. English author Sir Nathaniel Wraxall once wrote from Vienna: "[T]he injudicious bigotry of the Empress may chiefly be attributed the deficiency [in learning]. Austria had to leave the Prussian territories that were occupied. She began addressing the Diet in Latin, and she asserted that "the very existence of the Kingdom of Hungary, of our own person and children, and our crown, are at stake.  In 1771–1778, a series of "Robot Patents" were issued by Maria Theresa, and these patents regulated and restricted peasant labour only in the German and Bohemian parts of the realm. Abdication alone can remedy matters.  The 500,000 gulden in annual revenue from 100,000 inhabitants of Innviertel were not comparable to the 100,000,000 gulden that were spent during the war.  Charles sought the other European powers' approval for disinheriting his nieces. Even though Francis Stephen was his favourite candidate for Maria Theresa's hand, the Emperor considered other possibilities.  The punishments included whipping, deportation, or even the death penalty. The French plans fell apart when Charles Albert died in January 1745. This latter proviso was ignored in 1667,…. It takes at least a week for the smallpox rash to appear after a person is infected.  Joseph himself regarded his mother's religious policies as "unjust, impious, impossible, harmful and ridiculous". , One of Maria Theresa's greatest wishes was to have as many grandchildren as possible, but she had only about two dozen at the time of her death, of which all the eldest surviving daughters were named after her, with the exception of Princess Carolina of Parma, her eldest granddaughter by Maria Amalia. Richly illustrated with portraits of imperial sovereigns and their cabinet ministers' with biographical sketches (1863) (14583680887).jpg 2,064 × 1,420; 241 KB Updates?  Her coronation as Queen of Hungary took place in St. Martin's Cathedral, Pressburg, on 25 June 1741. By marriage, she was Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress. , Prussian ambassador's letter to Frederick the Great[g], The Treaty of Breslau of June 1742 ended hostilities between Austria and Prussia. Previously, various lands in the Habsburg realm had their own laws.