masque de fer pignerol

Nor does he refer to any baptism, or even membership of the Protestant religion before his conversion to Catholicism in 1667, when he would have been 29 years old; James: on the island of Jersey (1644-1657), raised by Marguerite Carteret. In 1668, Roux de Marcilly was the head and coordinator of a plot against King of France Louis XIV. Antonin Nompar de Caumont, Duke of Lauzun - serviceman and French courtier, appointed Lieutenant General of the Armies in 1670. It is most probably the biography of Louis XIV by Philippe Erlanger, published in 1960. French memorialist Saint-Simon quotes[65] the account of Cléran, his father's former equerry, who went to see Madame de Louvois before the minister's death. According to Marcel Pagnol, this U-turn from the minister, occurring 22 days after Roux's execution, means in reality that Martin was arrested and lends weight to the theory that the King's order to kidnap Martin was entrusted to a special official, without the ambassador's knowledge. Dans le courant d’août 1666, il réintègre le donjon restauré. [34] After « Martin » the true identity of the prisoner was hidden under another name, but he was still referred to as a valet. En décembre Fouquet demande même l’autorisation de quitter Pignerol pour se rendre à Bourbon. Charles II – King of England (1660-1685), Louis XIV's first cousin, François Michel Le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois – French Secretary of State for War (1662-1691), Louis-François-Marie Le Tellier de Barbezieux (Louvois's son) – Secretary of State for War under the reign of Louis XIV (1681-1701). Comparing the letters from Charles II to Father Oliva with other letters addressed to his sister Henrietta of England,[16] two graphologist experts consulted by Pagnol are positive: the letters sent to Father Oliva are fake, making James a fraud. L’appartement de Fouquet n’a plus de plancher. The prison housed the free company of Saint-Mars, composed of 66 soldiers and a number of officers, but there were just five or six cells in the keep, where only state prisoners were held. In spite of his long meetings with the Duke of York and State Secretary Md Arlington, Roux said he was disappointed by the lack of cooperation of England, reluctant to launch the first attacks on France. On his return to Paris on 27 August, on the orders of the King Louvois undertook complete renewal of the garrison of Pignerol,[53] involving the replacement of the regiment, the officers (Marcel Pagnol estimates their number to be between 30 and 40) and three governors: La Bretonnière, governor of the city, St-Jacques, governor of the Citadel, and the Major of the fort of La Pérouse. The official version of the "valet" Eustache Dauger is maintained in the correspondence until the false announcement of the release of the prisoner "Eustache Dauger". Pagnol obtained photostats of Charles II's letters through the archivist Father at the. French journalist Elie Fréron published letters in the periodic l’Année littéraire in 1768. – au premier étage de la tour médiane : le moine La Pierre et l’espion Dubreuil He was denounced, kidnapped, and executed in Paris on 21 June 1669. The King and the cardinal thus planned the birth to ensure that the Queen's bedroom would be "evacuated" after the first birth. These revelations were not taken seriously as Soulavie also asserts that to obtain this confidence, this girl is thought to have given favours to her father, which Pagnol disputes: Soulavie was writing during the Revolution and tried to appeal to the lower classes by denouncing the ignominy of the "tyrants" of the Monarchy. Marcel Pagnol emphasises the urgent nature of this ministerial journey, initially planned for 20 September, moved forward to 15 August, and finally taking place on 8 August (the journey from Paris to Briançon took five days and five nights in a mail-coach) in the delicate European context of the Treaty of Dover. ", Chevalier, Major of the Bastille for over thirty years (1749-1787) wrote notes about each of the former prisoners. [17],[18] Marcel Pagnol's believed in James’ good faith though, admitting that he sincerely believed he was the bastard son of Charles II.[19]. In light of other correspondence between Charles II and Henrietta of England, Marcel Pagnol establishes that Henrietta received James, and handed him a letter for the attention of Charles II, judiciously leaving to him the responsibility of ordaining James. Pagnol does not mention any surname prior to "de la Cloche". Marcel Pagnol reproduces the text of the death certificate on which the name Marchialy [58] is written. Pagnol quotes Constantin de Renneville, imprisoned at the Bastille in 1702, i.e. 1638-1644: Marcel Pagnol does not mention any first name given to him at birth. [76][77] It is noticeable that the death certificate states a younger prisoner of "forty-five years old or thereabouts." He also compared some of the detention conditions with those of other prisoners such as Fouquet, Lauzun and Matthioli, who had not benefited from the construction of a new cell. Knowing via the Carteret family that Charles II was secretly preparing for his conversion to Catholicism,[11] he decided to become a Catholic priest in order to be able to convert Charles II. Finally he denounces the revocation of the Edict of Nantes as being his "main crime". According to Marshal Richelieu's memoirs, published by Abbot Soulavie in 1790, the daughter of Regent Philippe d’Orléans supposedly heard from her father that the prisoner was Louis XIV‘s twin-brother, the legitimate heir to the throne. J’ai estimé qu’il était pertinent d’en faire la liste, car ils auront leur importance pour la suite de l’enquête ! 1681 – Saint-Mars is appointed governor of the Fort of Exilles in the Alps, and leaves for there with all his general staff and his company, and just two prisoners: Dauger and La Rivière, a valet by profession. French historian Haag wrote in. 1644 – The Carteret family, residing on the island of Jersey, adopt a 6-year-old child brought to them by Lady Perronette, who is then raised by their daughter Marguerite. He also mentions the mask being worn at the Bastille, including during medical examinations. Also the cell is closed with two doors and a tambour preventing the priest from seeing them from inside the tower; the windows are fitted with triple bars. He preferred a more anonymous journey rather than alerting the communities along the various stops. In Sainte-Marguerite, probably because of the valet La Rivière's death, "Dauger" was authorised to go for walks on the Island. 1694 - The prison of Pignerol, threatened by a concentration of Italian troops, is evacuated. The authenticity of that name has been denied by Jesuit writer Henri Griffet. Doctor Séron is thought to have died after locking himself in his bedroom for several hours, screaming about his guilt for "what he had done to his master. In June 1768, doubtless following the reactions aroused by Fréron's publications, he wrote that his account cannot "support any speculations produced until now." After full examination by two of the King's historiographers, a first edition of the Memoirs was issued in 1830. – En 1675, Eustache Danger, confiné dans l’isolement le plus total depuis six ans, entre au service de Fouquet, en remplacement du valet Champagne, décédé en septembre 1674. Pagnol does not specify James de la Cloche's religion before conversion to Catholicism. Voltaire took up his pen once again after his enemy Fréron's publications in 1768. – En 1674, Lauzun, qui lui n’a pas de secret à monnayer (pour l’instant du moins) tente de s’évader. Vallot – he died suddenly on 16 July 1673. On 19 May 1669 (almost one year after the letter that denounced him), Roux was made prisoner and sent to the Bastille, where the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Mgr de Lionne questions him under torture. Major Rosarges signs the death certificate. Il peut prendre l’air dans un enclos du donjon, deux fois par semaine, en compagnie de Lauzun. On his deathbed, anxious to escape Catholic hell, he turned to Cardinals de Rohan and de Bissy, holding them responsible for everything. Voltaire also quotes Michel de Chamillart, secretary for war in 1701 (having succeeded Barbezieux), as the last secretary to keep the secret, and whose son-in-law the Second Marshall of La Feuillade is said to have failed to make him break his oath of silence. Vous n’avez jamais eu de meilleur serviteur que moi relativement à vos intérêts et à votre fortune. – au second étage de la tour d’angle : Nicolas Fouquet et ses valets Champagne et La Rivière In his letter, he does not provide any theory regarding the prisoner's identity. Marcel Pagnol quotes extracts from the records kept by Du Junca in which he reports the arrival at the Bastille of the prisoner brought in by Saint-Mars wearing "a black velvet mask", his death on 19 November 1703, and his burial at the cemetery of Saint-Paul the day after. The dungeon: it was in 1669 that the first dungeon of the masked prisoner was built in Pignerol, yet Matthioli was imprisoned only ten years later. Eventually he would answer Madame de Pompadour and say he was the "secretary of an Italian Prince…"[69] thus referring to Matthioli. Pagnol observes, however, that his evasive responses suggest that he knew the secret. Marcel Pagnol also indicates the existence of a real valet named Martin who served Roux: he was found in London when Roux was tracked down and said he did not know anything about the plot led by his former master. However, Mr du Palteau writes to Mr du Fréron in June 1768: ". 1680 – Death in Pignerol of Nicolas Fouquet, who had been imprisoned since 1664. The sum of 800 pounds sterling is mentioned as having already been paid to James, which Pagnol interprets as an express request, representing a case of swindling. Marcel Pagnol therefore places the arrival of "Martin" (arrested in England) in Calais between 6 and 12 July 1669.[30]. The prisoner was transferred from Exilles to the Islands in an oilcloth litter, within which he was protected from inquisitive looks, with eight Italian carriers being brought in from Turin. Immediately after his arrival in Calais, he was certainly interned in the vicinity of Dunkirk. June 1669 - Trial and execution of Roux De Marcilly for a plot against King Louis XIV. Les prisonniers de la citadelle de Pignerol en 1679 Événements survenus à Pignerol entre 1666 et 1680 Nous voilà en 1679 et le donjon compte neuf prisonniers. When Saint-Mars and the prisoner stopped off in the locality of Palteau, Saint-Mars had lunch with the prisoner armed with two pistols, which seems excessive if it was only to defend himself from a revolt by the prisoner. Dauger then officially became Fouquet's valet, which supported the official claim that "he is only a valet". 5 September 1638, he would only be eight years younger than Charles II, born in 1630. He was apparently granted all that he asked for. Lagrange-Chancel reports the account of Mr de Lamotte-Guérin's, governor of the Islands at the time of Lagrange-Chancel's imprisonment and lieutenant of the islands, therefore Saint-Mars's deputy, at least six years before the Prisoner's transfer to the Bastille. There were also professional valets in the prison. Pagnol considers him to have been the main initiator of the widespread curiosity regarding the mysterious prisoner. Il n’avait pas vu les siens depuis quatorze ans ! As for Vauban, his mission consisted of building a strong room for the prisoner, the work only being completed in May of the following year. The Man in the Iron Mask (French: L'Homme au Masque de Fer; c. 1640 – 19 November 1703) was an unidentified prisoner who was arrested in 1669 or 1670 and subsequently held in a number of French prisons, including the Bastille and the Fortress of Pignerol (modern Pinerolo, Italy). Mr du Palteau concludes by declaring: "I did not hear it said that he had a foreign accent," most probably eliminating the hypothesis of a foreigner such as Matthioli. It seems that Saint-Mars sent a weekly report on the state prison to the minister, who systematically replied with his instructions. However, he revealed the secret at the Court of Turin, which then spreads as far as Spain. Voltaire was imprisoned at the Bastille from May 1717 to April 1718, i.e. It is to the same Carteret family that Henrietta of England sent her son (the future Charles II) during the civil war in 1646. James de la Cloche: on Jersey Island (1657-1668). In 1681, following the death of the Duke de Lesdiguières, governor of Exilles, Louis XIV reassigned the position to Saint-Mars, who had expressed in a letter to Louvois his "extreme repugnance [with] commanding the citadel of Pignerol". In defiance of the Swiss sovereignty,[25] Louis XIV had him kidnapped. She was granted an allowance of 6000. Ils sont pris sur le fait. Following the hunting adventure, the King and the Queen, furious to learn that Fargues was living quietly so close to Paris, asked Lamoignon, first President of the Parliament of Paris, to investigate his past. Pagnol specifies that Lauzun remained under very close surveillance when released: he was required to stay in the provinces under the custody of a certain Mr de Maupertuis, captain of the musketeers and Saint-Mars's friend. Although he was popular with "many beautiful ladies" (Pagnol describes him as a womaniser), Barbezieux is denounced by Saint Simon for being immature and irresponsible, apparently too young to inherit one of the most important ministries. Saint-Mars and his lieutenants (his cousin Blainvilliers and his two nephews Formanoir): Pagnol considers that it is to their unbroken discretion that they owed their fortune, estimated at 5 billion francs (1960 value), including three seigniorial lands, ownership of which gave them noble status. The conspiracy aimed at overturning Louis XIV's government and change into republic provinces like Provence, Dauphiné and Languedoc, with the military support of Switzerland, Spain and United Netherlands (Dutch Republic). Marcel Pagnol feels, however, that any direct meeting with Louis XIV was "very improbable". On the other hand, Roux was much more confident about the massive support of Spain and Switzerland. Pagnol quotes certain theories identifying the masked prisoner as Count Matthioli,[87] such as those of Marius Topin,[88] or the historian Funck Brentano,[89] particularly due to the name Marchialy written on the death certificate, which could be a distortion of "Matthioli". He was given this surname following Marguerite Carteret's marriage to Jean de La Cloche. This threat probably explains the prisoner's transfer to the Bastille. The detention of this prisoner was a secret and was not to be revealed to anyone. He may also have been questioned in Paris before the transfer to Pignerol. These records were documents meant for unofficial, personal use (as a form of reminder) and their authenticity and sincerity cannot be disputed. A little coastal area in Cotentin still bears this name today, the commune of, Pagnol sees in it a striking resemblance between Charles II and Louis XIV (first cousins), referring to a portrait of Charles II painted by, Charles's true intentions regarding his conversion to Catholicism remain unknown: he secretly commits to this later, in one of the clauses of the. In a socio-political context of persecution of Huguenots and famine, the plot was on a European scale. Shortly after, on 13 July, Lionne informs Colbert de Croissy that it is no longer necessary to arrest the accomplice Veyras : ", In early June 1669, i.e. Marcel Pagnol wonders about this delay of over twenty days, due either to the health of the prisoner, overwhelmed by his arrest, or to interrogations taking place.[32]. Still proceeding with the trick of a fake supporting letter from Charles II, James would have requested an audience with Henrietta of England. This is how Marcel Pagnol believes James was told his true identity, and was sent to Roux who was plotting a massive conspiracy against Louis XIV,[31] as all Charles II's government was well aware. 1668 – James de la Cloche takes his novitiate at the Jesuit Institute of Rome, introducing himself as "Prince Stuart", son of King Charles II. When Cardinal Richelieu was informed by Louis XIII of the Queen's twin pregnancy, he claimed that the second birth would have to be hidden, as the coexistence of two dauphins would inevitably lead to civil war. According to custom, the main figures of the Court attended the birth of the first child, who was quickly baptized, then the King took the Court to the Chapel of the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye,[2] where a Te Deum was sung in front of about forty people. Regarding the King's secret conversion, the letters to Father Oliva were certainly not dictated to a secretary. He thus contradicts other historians' theories which, in his view, resulted from false information deliberately disseminated by the authorities of the period who, foreseeing later examination of the correspondence, supposedly laid false trails to try to conceal the prisoner's real identity. Announcement of the release of the prisoner "Eustache Dauger" and La Rivière, Fouquet's valet. This is clearly a false name in order to conceal the real identity of the prisoner. Morland denounced the conspirator to Henri de Massue de Rouvigny, the ambassador extraordinary of France in London. 26 years of detention by 1705 rather than the 31 years mentioned. Thus the iron mask, as depicted in the film The Man in the Iron Mask by Randall Wallace (1998), may only be a legend, a "dramatic extension" originating from the "chin strap with iron springs". It is not known where exactly the prisoner is located when Mr de Vauroy receives Louvois's letter on 3RD August. Indeed, a real Eustache Dauger actually existed, as Martin, Roux de Marcilly's valet. However, Saint-Mars's letters sent to Paris (or Versailles) appear to have been significantly expurgated. James then went off to London. Seeing himself thus condemned to life imprisonment alongside "Dauger" without any form of accusation or judgment, he died in Exilles on 4 January 1687. He was imprisoned as he was about to marry the Duchess of Montpensier, first cousin of Louis XIV. On 12 May 1681, Louvois writes to Saint-Mars: "Regarding the two [prisoners] in the lower tower, you only have to mark them down with this name, without putting anything else." Even the turnkey (Antoine Rû) was with him throughout his captivity. Guillaume became a lieutenant in 1693 and most probably also accompanied Saint-Mars to serve the prisoner's meals. He ordered Saint-Mars to purchase furniture, whereas, according to Marcel Pagnol, he already had plenty to furnish the cell of a simple valet. In Pignerol, Marcel Pagnol shows to what extent Louvois feared an encounter with Lauzun who would have doubtless recognized him, suggesting that the prisoner did not wear a mask in Pignerol. Marchialy: on the death certificate dated 20 November 1703. Two men on sentry duty who stood guard day and night must report any attempt at outside communication. This false announcement of Dauger's release supported the idea that "he is only a valet" in so far as he would be released the day after his master's death. Lauzun is released. Then, in his letter of 26 July 1669, Louvois orders Captain De Vauroy, Major of the citadel of Dunkirk, to take the prisoner Dauger to Pignerol. In The Age of Louis XIV (1751), Voltaire mentions, during the detention on the island of Sainte-Marguerite, "a mask having a chin strap with iron springs, which enabled him to eat with the mask on his face." In May 1698, minister Barbezieux offered the governance of the Bastille to Saint-Mars for an overall salary, including revenues and profits from prisoners’ food and furnishings, of 40,000 livres per year, i.e. One of the prisoners dies, most probably Matthioli, according to Pagnol. He was given the name of "Eustache Dauger", designating him as a simple valet. After Rouvigny's report, Roux, who had been warned of the danger, fled to Switzerland where he took refuge with his friend Balthazar at the end of February 1669. Bénigne Dauvergne de Saint-Mars, known as Saint-Mars - Marshall of Lodgings of the Musketeers, he was the assistant of D’Artagnan for the arrest of Fouquet in 1661. Le Secret du Masque de fer (The Secret of the Iron mask) is a historical essay by French novelist Marcel Pagnol, who identified the famous prisoner in the iron mask as the twin brother of Louis XIV, born after him and imprisoned for life in 1669 for having conspired against the King. which ensured Louis XIV's posthumous glory. Being locked in the same dungeon as a Jacobin monk, he therefore does not hold any dangerous secret. He specifies that he made sure the dishes, the corners of the bedroom and other places where the prisoner could have written were scrupulously and systematically inspected. Yet according to François-Régis Bastide,[65] who examined the very first inventory: "One hundred and sixty-two portfolios are missing, which represents a quantity of writing work fifteen times larger than the Memoirs." Furthermore, Marcel Pagnol sets out an analogy between the health status of "Dauger" and Louis XIV, involving feverishness and various chronic illnesses. Marcel Pagnol then produces the hypothesis that the King, through Louvois, proposed a deal to the prisoner: "the King would spare his life, provided that he solemnly undertook to remain silent forever; but in the interest of the State, His Majesty was obliged to deprive him of his freedom." In 1657 Marguerite married Jean de la Cloche who gave his name to James. In his letter to Saint-Mars on 19 July 1669 announcing the arrival of "Dauger" in Pignerol, Louvois set out instructions regarding the conditions of detention and treatment assigned to him. De quoi peut-il s’agir ? After several months of hesitation, Saint-Mars accepted and left the French Riviera for France's first prison. Then in 1679 Louvois is thought. The prisoner is identified as the Duke of Beaufort, who died at the Siege of Candia. Pagnol does not specify his source. ». Roux was said to have been gagged for his execution. Marcel Pagnol goes as far as to propose that it was the prisoner himself who suggested to Saint-Mars that he adopt this approach towards Louvois. L’un est pendu, l’autre condamné aux galères ! Some prisoners at the Bastille, especially young noblemen, asked for the permission to wear a mask so as not to be recognized by their guards or inmates after their imprisonment. Saint-Mars describes the "small ceremony" in Barbezieux in his letter of 6 January 1696. The essay was published for the first time in 1965 under the title Le Masque de fer (The Iron Mask),[1] and updated in 1973, completed in particular with research on James de la Cloche, identified as the twin bearing this name in his youth. – Lauzun ne cesse de tourner en rond dans sa prison comme un loup dans sa cage. At his death in 1754, Saint-Simon left a large number of manuscripts, which were not published due to an "Order of the King" to keep them secret in 1760. Letter from Lagrange-Chancel, imprisoned on the islands of Sainte-Marguerite from 1719 to 1722. Mademoiselle, Louis XIV's first cousin, possessed considerable properties, in particular the principality of Dombes and the comté of Eu. Following Fouquet's death in 1680, he was imprisoned alongside Dauger and died in Exilles in 1687 without ever having been accused or condemned. When the masked prisoner arrived at the Bastille, "Eustache Dauger" was therefore officially released. However, the Count of Estrades, who at the time was in charge of the most important maritime stronghold in the kingdom in his capacity as Governor of Dunkirk, and whom the King and Louvois fully trusted, would most certainly have been informed of Vauroy's mission had it only concerned a simple valet. He then had Lauzun imprisoned in Pignerol (where he stayed for ten years) in order to exchange his freedom against the principality of Dombes and the comté of Eu, which he bequeathed to the Duke of Maine, his illegitimate son from his affair with Madame de Montespan. – au premier étage de la tour d’angle : Lauzun, l’ancien favori du roi et son valet He spends time with the prisoner every day, for example when he accompanies Saint-Mars to serve the prisoner's meals, as Saint-Mars describes in a letter to Louvois in January 1696. In 1738 he wrote that he had "spoken to people who served him," making very little reference to his sources, at least in the extracts Pagnol gives in his investigation. The transfer to Exilles took place by night, in a clandestine manner, in so far as Saint-Mars did not inform Governor D’Harleville of it. Still under the custody of Saint Mars, he was transferred to the fort of Exilles then to the island of Sainte-Marguerite in 1687, and finally to the Bastille in 1698, where he died in 1703 after 34 years in captivity. Louis XIV therefore sent Louvois and Vallot to question the prisoner and undertake complete renewal of the troops on site. When he died, everything was searched and burnt. Charles II might have followed the "wait and see" tactic, and waited for Spain and Switzerland to start the hostilities before launching the battle with a more favorable situation. However, this letter provided little information on the identity of Roux de Marcilly and his occupations in London, only briefly referring to a military past. The governor himself served him and took away his laundry. Louis XIV also took sanctions against his brother Monsieur when he commanded the victorious army of William of Orange at the Battle of Cassel in 1677. In any case, they constitute proof of the prisoner's existence, which is therefore not a legend. The mask itself is explicitly mentioned in several accounts concerning the detention in Sainte-Marguerite and then at the Bastille. The keep was a state prison, attached to the ministry of War, almost as famous as the Bastille, but with an even more frightening reputation. Louvois also continued to express his deep concern and warned Saint-Mars again regarding any encounter between Dauger and Lauzun, when Fouquet was allowed to meet Lauzun at the beginning of 1679.[39]. Madame de Cavoye – Louis and Eustache Dauger de Cavoye's mother. Questioned by Marie-Antoinette, Louis XVI promised her he would carry out research. Fouquet rédige un mémoire dans lequel il s’engage à livrer au roi, si celui-ci le libère, un secret extraordinaire. Blainvilliers, who is thought to have seen him without his mask, describes his physical appearance as "tall and well-built," with grey hair and "nice clothes," and reports a real royal ceremonial during the visits, which Pagnol compares to that established by Henri IV at court. [81] He then mentions a "black mask" when Saint-Mars and the prisoner stop at Palteau. In 1695 Cannes was placed in a state of defence, requesting the Arsenal of Toulon. These were used by experts in graphology consulted by Pagnol to examine the writing and compare it against the letters addressed to Father Oliva in Rome. When James gave the letter to Charles II in London in early 1669, the latter recognised him and revealed the secret of his birth, which he certainly inherited from his mother Henrietta of France. Here again, according to Pagnol, the order to kill Barbezieux was implicitly given by Louis XIV. Pagnol considers such a version "unacceptable" but all the same underlines the fact that the book was printed in Holland without any author's name, proving that the identity of the masked prisoner was still an important state secret in 1745, some 42 years after his death. Pagnol mentions an extract in which Voltaire refers to the mysterious prisoner, imprisoned on the island of Sainte-Marguerite then at the Bastille. On 14 December 1681, Louvois ordered Saint-Mars to dress the two prisoners (Dauger and La Rivière) in new clothes, specifying that ", In his letter of 9 June 1681, Louvois orders Saint-Mars to leave for Exilles. Pagnol does not give any precise date as to when James approached King Charles II, doubtless through the Carterets. [59], As for the grave, Marcel Pagnol mentions a rumour according to which some drugs were inserted into the prisoner's coffin to consume the body, which he does not believe.

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